Baja California Sur or "Lower California South", officially Free and Sovereign State of Baja California Sur (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Baja California Sur), is the second smallest Mexican state by population and the 31st admitted state of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, make up the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. Before becoming a state on October 8, 1974, the area was known as the South Territory of Baja California. It has an area of 73,475 km2 (28,369 sq mi), or 3.57% of the land mass of Mexico and occupies the southern half of the Baja California peninsula, south of the 28th parallel.
It is bordered to the north by the state of Baja California, to the west by the Pacific Ocean, and to the east by the Gulf of California, also known as the "Sea of Cortés". Also, the state has maritime borders with Sonora and Sinaloa to the east across the Gulf of California.
As of 2010, the population was 637,026. The state is home to the tourist resorts of Cabo San Lucas and San José del Cabo. Its largest city and capital is La Paz. It includes Loreto, the historic first capital of all three Californias (Baja California Sur, Baja California, and California), and the town of Santa Rosalía which is the site of a historic church designed by Gustave Eiffel.
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